Today, Google Analytics released Real-Time, a new dashboard that will show your website traffic and certain metrics as it happens. Google Analytics has shown they are committed to the free version, by making this feature free and available to all starting today. The data that is shown only has a delay of 1-2 seconds from when a visitor clicks to one of your pages.
The image to the right is the main dashboard for Real-Time, you can click on it for full size. The top of this report is the most visually appealing part, the top left shows there are 1,680 active visitors on the site. These visitors have been active within the last 30 minutes. Every 10 seconds this number updates. The graphs to the right show pageviews by minute and second. These graphs update every second, and watching them update can be quite mesmerizing. The video embedded below, shows these first graphs and metric updating.
Looking at the middle of the main dashboard we can see the top referrals/referring sites that are sending our site traffic. Top active pages finishes out the middle portion, by showing us where all of our visitors currently are on our site. These visitors have been active in the last 5 minutes, any one not active for over 5 minutes is dropped. The bottom of the main Real-Time dashboard shows us the organic keywords that visitors searched for to find our site, and what locations they are coming from. If you want to see the top of the dashboard in action, watch the video below. Scroll down to read and learn about the other reports included in Real-Time and how all of this may be useful to you.
Content, Traffic Sources, and Locations
Real-Time includes 3 other main reporting sections besides the overview. Content, Traffic Sources, and Locations provide you with more detail about how visitors got to your site and what they are currently doing. The Content report will let you see the top 20 pages visitors are on right now and over a rolling 30 minute period. You can select any of the pages and the top 20 sources for where the visitor originally came from to get to that page will be shown.
The Traffic Sources report will show you how visitors got to your site instead of a specific page like in the Content Report. This allows additional drilldown into each medium of traffic (organic, referral, cpc, etc) that is sending traffic to your site. For example, if you click on organic, you will see a list of all the search engines that sent traffic and clicking on one of these will show you the keywords for a particular search engine. If you are campaign tagging emails you are sending out, you could drilldown and see which emails visitors clicked on to get to your site in this report as well.
The Locations reports shows a map and table of what countries are sending traffic. You can drilldown on a country and see the cities visitors are coming from. Google added in a fun feature by allowing you to change the map view to the Google Earth view. This will zoom to a random visitors location in 3D every 10 seconds. This would be an excellent view for a TV in a lobby for your company. Below is a video of this happening, its much more smooth in the actual report, but I think I still captured it decently.
How This is Useful and a Feature Request
Overall Real-Time feels very polished and is a great addition to Google Analytics. There are a variety of ways Real-Time will be useful. Depending on the size of your account Google Analytics can take up to 24 hours to show you data, Real-Time shows you it within 1-2 seconds. Lets take a social media campaign, which usually has a very short period of engagement. You can see visitors coming in Real-Time and see where they are going on your website. Lets say you are seeing visitors make it to the shopping cart page, but the conversions aren’t happening. You could go back to your social media post and offer an incentive such as a discount code or free shipping code, to try and rectify the low amount of conversions. Before Real-Time, it would take up to 24 hours for this data to appear in your reports, but now you can view and act upon incoming data as quickly as you desire.
One feature that I hope to see added soon is the ability to set custom alerts for Real-Time data. I know some of you will have Real-Time open 24/7 in the corner of your screen, but imagine how useful it would be to have Google Analytics send you an e-mail or even a text message if all of a sudden your site saw an increase of 260% the amount of expected traffic. You could then go look inside Real-Time and see your website was receiving a huge amount of traffic from the New York Times. Further investigation showed that you are featured in an article on their homepage. You could then alert your marketing manager and start pushing out content to promote this. The way Real-Time is right now, unless you are glued to your screen, Real-Time is reactive, meaning you usually will not look at it until you have a question that it could help answer. With custom alerts, it would become a proactive tool, sending you alerts when unexpected behavior occurs. The tool was just released, but it is my opinion that Google will have more additions for us!
A BIG thank you for all who attended the Google Analytics training day in Las Vegas. I know it was an information packed day but your questions, comments, and the “on-the-fly” analysis requests made a huge difference, and I truly appreciate your participation and engagement.
Here are the links to the topics and posts you requested; feel free to contact or email if you have any other questions or comments.
A while back, I attended an awesome webinar by Webtrends on Social Marketing, particularly using Facebook pages. I know I’m a tad late, but it had such great information, I thought it would be a shame if I didn’t post it. They have a great social analytics tool (free trial) you might want to try out on your Facebook page.
Interestingly, they had a different strategy than the traditional one, and it actually made a lot of sense. Normally, you might try to build your page fan base as large as possible, then use that free stream of connection to push your product/services, either through updates on your wall (that will appear your members’ news feeds) or through message “updates” that appear in your members’ inboxes.
However, changes to the Facebook’s newsfeed algorithm (called EdgeRank) threw a little bit of a wrench in that – most of your posts actually aren’t seen by your page members. Also, “updates” show up in an unnoticeable “other” box that may be ignored.
Webtrends’ strategy takes this into account and apply a different approach – engage your visitors to build heavy rapport, then reach them through paid ads.
EdgeRank actually suppresses 95% of posts! The EdgeRank algorithm uses Engagement of the post, Affinity of a user to your page, and Decay to determine whether an update makes it to a member’s feed. Facebook hopes to provide as relevant content as possible to you (since it’s impossible to feed everything). That means if people aren’t interacting with your post (engagement), a member doesn’t really visit your page often (affinity), and/or a post is old (decay), the chances of your members or friends seeing it in their feed is pretty slim.
Webtrends stresses the importance of social engagement. That’s the intended nature of social networks – to start a conversation. Build rapport with your members and get them to consistently engage with your page through fun and simple posts rather than simply using your page to push your own products and promotions. Promotional posts statistically do not generate as much engagement as “fun”, simple, conversational posts.
Some key points:
“Emotional stories” and “sports wins” get great engagement.
Simple and easy questions are the most successful in engaging users. Example, Lane Bryant’s posts with maximum engagement were “Like this is you are a curvy women” and “Fill in the blank: My favorite color is:_____________”
Promotional posts don’t get as much engagement as simple, social questions. A good ratio of promotional posts to other posts is one in every 10.
Keep a close eye on posts and respond – the more responses and the quicker the reply, the more likely a conversation will break out, which will higher the EdgeRank score of that post.
Monetize (Using Ads)
Once you have enough “reach” (your membership is large) and your existing members are engaged, use Facebook’s targeted ads to target your own page members for products/promotion. Since you have built rapport and you now have a strong bond with them, they are more likely to pay attention, click through, and convert (assuming you have an optimized conversion page/process).
Google Analytics released Multi-Channel Funnels (MCF) last week to everyone. There are many very powerful features that were included in this release, some of which I mentioned briefly last week. These features can help make the analysis potential much more powerful. One of the features that everyone needs to take advantage of is Channel Groupings. Google included a basic channel grouping template in MCF, that categorizes a few channels automatically, such as direct, organic, AdWords, and a couple more. If you are using campaign tagging, which you should be, you should have a variety of other channels that are assigned sources and mediums that you defined. If you are taking advantage of this, the default MCF view for Top Conversion Paths will look like this:
Before Channel Groupings
For this view I have filtered the report to only show Paths that include other, which are the undefined Channel Groupings. This isn’t a very useful view, as there is not much analysis that you can do with it. You don’t know what other is, but after going through the steps later in this post you can break these out and you will have paths that look like this instead:
After Channel Grouping
Above is a report that provides much more information, and is more appealing to look at. Instead of being presented with a bunch of “Other” we have broken apart other into the marketing channels that we have been tagging correctly using Google Analytics campaign tracking. This is extremely useful as you can start to analyze how the various marketing channels you are using such as QR Codes, Banner Ads, and even offline media are contributing to your site conversions.
How To Create Channel Groupings
To create your own Channel Grouping like the one presented above, you select the Channel Grouping dropdown and select “Copy Basic Channel Grouping template…” which will copy the settings for the default view that you see in MCF’s.
After clicking on “Copy Basic Channel Grouping template…” you will be presented with the view below. This is how Google has chosen to categorize the channels in all the reports for MCF’s. As you can see the “(Other)” channel comes from a rule that Google made if something doesn’t match any of the conditions above.
When you click “Add new Rule” which can be found under the last channel that has been created, you will be presented with new options to create your new channel, which should look like the image below. Here we have grouped everything that contains “affiliate” in the Medium and grouped it together with a pretty color. The amount of different combinations are very extensive. An example of this is for AdWords you could split the Channel into two Channels, those that came from display advertisements and those that came from paid search.
After you have applied and added new rules for your campaigns your should have a nice list of all your channels, with channel specific colors to make your reports more appealing and easily readable, as shown below. Again the possibilities of different channel grouping are many. Google uses a suggestion of making Generic Keywords vs. Branded Keywords, you could incorporate this into the new template you just made by making another copy of it. You could split your organic search into the two keyword groups, and go from there. I foresee channel groupings being essential to providing support to marketing questions that arise. In a meeting a question that may be asked; “Is social media really worth the time invested?” To help provide insight into this, you could start breaking apart the social media channels and see which contributes to conversions. Channel Groupings is my favorite feature of MCF’s, and I have a feeling it will be most peoples as well.
An age old debate never seems to settle is whether Analytics is hard or easy. Ironically, this debate could be resolved if we (those of us in the web analytics industry), simply realized that analytics is both hard and easy. What’s certainly hard is convincing end users to commit and leverage analytics and make better use of data. When more people become data driven and adopt analytics, then analytics geeks (such as yours truly!) will find themselves impacting strategies at the executive table. Marketers, business owners and consultants could benefit greatly from making the “easy” accessible and the “hard” simplified.
To reach this goal, marketers need a guide to help build the marketing accountability that analytics, and smart people, bring to the table.
I hope to provide this guide and structure in my 7-Step Analytics Reporting Framework whitepaper. This framework will help marketers navigate through seas of data and reports and leverage insights to impact their business.
And for those of you on the go, here’s a quick outline of what to expect:
1- Define your requirements
Clearly identify what you need to measure and extract key data to measure your performance. This is the foundation for all following steps.
2- Know your channels
Pageviews alone won’t cut it anymore. Different media platforms require different measurement approaches and techniques. Understand the characteristics of your channels and how to track each of them.
3- Trim your metrics
When it comes to reporting, apply this strategy: “less is more”. Just because you have a lot of data doesn’t mean you need it all.
4- Segment for context
Absolute numbers and aggregates hide a wealth of insight and can be very misleading. . Segment and allow “context” to give your data meaning.
5- Put intelligence at your service
Let computers crunch the numbers. Let reports detect and flag significant changes in your key performance indicators automatically. (If you are not a Google Analytics user, it’s time to jump on the bandwagon and leverage its powerful Intelligence engine.)
6- Integrate reporting
Data from your website offer just few pieces of the puzzle. Incorporate data from mobile, social, offline, competitive, etc. and look at the big picture.
Tired of manual reporting? Automate your reports. This gives you more time to do proper analysis.
What was great about this webinar was that while Social Media workshops give you the typical tips (referred to as “Rainbows” & “Unicorns” by Dan) like “engage your members” or “love your fans”, Dan actually had data supporting his claims and recommendations and data even disproving some common myths. While he does bring up a lot of “correlations” and not so much “causations” (so we cant really say that implementing his tips will directly result in, say, more exposure or reach) they are still important points to consider.
Some Key Points:
Myth: Ideas spread because they are good. Some ideas are bad and they spread (Rebecca Black’s “Friday” being an example) and some are good but go no where (can’t think of any examples here ). There are other factors involved in spreading an idea, which he gets into later when he talks about “contagiousness”.
Myth: Viral growth is an exponential pyramid. According to Dan’s data on examples of viral growth, an idea may start slow, but there are usually key moments where an idea is exposed by the right people or “influencers”, resulting in it going viral. Then, the idea eventually dies out. This is opposed to the typical “first day one person shares to 2 people, second day those people share” pyramid.
Contagiousness. In order for an idea to be contagious, the following 3 pillars need to be established: EXPOSURE + ATTENTION + MOTIVATION
It’s really important to have as much exposure as possible, a large REACH – followers, email subscribers, Facebook likes, etc. If you don’t, it’s important to do your best to connect with an influencer who does (but here’s an instance of chicken and egg, because he states to increase your chances of getting an influencer to follow you, you need to increase your followers).
Myth: Engaging in the conversation builds reach. He’s not saying engagement isn’t important – this builds rapport, customer loyalty, etc. However, it doesn’t directly increase reach. According to his data, twitter accounts with over 1 million followers were less conversational than accounts with less. (I would question if these accounts were conversational before they got too big to respond to their followers, or even feel the need to respond).
Valuable content! According to his data, accounts that pushed valuable content and links had more followers than conversational accounts.
Myth: Don’t call yourself a guru. While it may seem pretentious, there is a correlation between accounts that make claims authoritative claims and having more followers. He recommends to use authoritative titles like “Official”, “Expert”, “Author”, “Founder”, etc. I have to admit, when I read a Twitter bio, I am usually duped by titles like this, only to be surprised when I found the “CEO and founder of x company” has only 10 followers. While the pretentiousness here correlates with having more followers, constantly emphasizing your authority in your content may result in the opposite.
Positivity. Positive users have more followers than those that are always negative. People come on Social Networks to be happy.
The human brain takes in so much information per second but can only process so much. Thus, it is wired to filter what’s important to it. That’s how a lot of advertising or ideas get ignored. You need to have an idea or service that triggers followers to put you in the “relevant” category and avoid being filtered.
More tweets per hour = lower CTR. Don’t crowd yourself out. Tweet maybe once an hour, give it time to breathe and allow people to read it. If you tweet too much too close together, that’s one way to get ignored.
Myth:Friday, Sat, Sunday are bad days to publish. Since less people are publishing these days, theres less garbage to filter from. Emails have higher CTRs on Sat and Sun. Facebook sharing have more shares on Sat/Sun.
Experiment. Don’t take anyone’s word for it – always experiment to see what works for you.
This is the difficult part. While one may be interested in viewing your post, to be really contagious, your idea/post needs to be interesting enough to motivate it being shared.
Information Voids. Find out what people want or are looking for, and create content that answers those questions. You can search for questions on twitter.
New Information. People want to share what’s interesting and new, not something that has been shared 1000 times and that everyone already knows.
Simple language. Write simply and plainly as not to lose readers. Writing less and being more engaging is actually harder than writing more.
Request explicitly to share. Data suggests that actually asking readers to retweet, repost, or share makes your post 4 times more likely to be shared. Sometimes, your readers may not actually think to share, and simply asking them will trigger that since they already have rapport with you.
Today, Google has made the new Multi Channel Funnels report suite available for everyone inside of Google Analytics. You can read their announcement here. Multi-Channel Funnels show which marketing channels customers interacted with for 30 days prior to purchasing or converting (completing a goal). This is great, because now we can see which channels initiate, assist, and finally help complete the conversion. In order for this feature to provide any value, you must have Goals and Ecommerce setup in your Google Analytics account.
There are 5 new reports and today I’ll give you a brief overview of a few. The first report you’ll see is the overview. Here you can see there where 1,261 conversions and of these 405 were assisted. Assisted means they used a combination of traffic sources. This could mean they visited our site twice from referral. The later reports will break this down more.
Assisted Conversions is next up. This starts to break down those assisted conversions and shows which channels contributed and whether it was first click, last interaction, or both. The values in this table are derived from the values that we assigned to our goals. This conversion value will be especially useful if you have e-commerce enabled and setup in Google Analytics. Keep in mind that in this report you can change to look at first click vs. last interaction and these are not mutually exclusive. A visitors path could look like Organic -> Direct – > Organic and in this case Organic would get both a first click and last interaction conversion. An awesome new feature in this section is the ability to make your own channel groupings, which for example could be a list of branded keywords and this can all be done on the fly.
The Top Conversion Paths Reports, display the conversion paths in a very user friendly manner. For the example below you can see that most of the users who are converting on this site, stick with the same channel. When looking at this and other reports, it is important to not just look at the overview as we have done for these examples, but also to drilldown and look at individual goal and e-commerce conversions.
These new reports open up many new layers of analysis. Multi-Channel Funnels complements the recent update to sessions. We will be providing more posts, about more detailed analysis that can be done inside of each of these reports. If you have any unique insights into how you are going to use these reports leave a comment below.
Recently, I read an article on the BBC News site titled, “Civil servants’ web habits revealed”. The article was about the recent report released by the British Department for Transport on the thousand sites most visited by staff while at work.
Even though I was psychologically prepared by my friend Brian Clifton to see some non-sense in the report, I have to say that I was shocked to find out that the ranking criteria was the number of hits to the site.
My first hope was that their definition of “hits” is not the one we teach in Analytics 101 and hoped that at least they actually meant “visit” instead of “hit”, but after reading the attached notes to the report I found them clearly stating that the number of hits, “does not indicate the number of times a particular page on a website has been visited, but in many instances will include multiple components (e.g. text, images, videos) each of which are counted.”!
What is wrong with “Hits”?
It is important to know that if two sites are visited the same number of times and the same number of pages are viewed in each site and one of the sites has more images, CSS/JS calls, and file downloads, the site with more server hits will rank higher in the Department for Transport’s report!
The use of hits may have been acceptable 10-15 years ago as the industry was not equipped with the right tools nor educated enough on what to measure and analyze, but now as we have advanced in the digital analytics sphere there is no excuse to use these outdated metrics in our analysis. The hits report is so useless that in reality it does not tell you anything about your site and visitors and certainly deserves the acronym that Katie Delahaye Paine gave to “hit”: How Idiots Track Success.
The example above illustrates the uselessness of the “Hits” report. By looking only at the number of “Hits”, Site A is doing much better than Site B and that is probably due to different factors that have nothing to do with the user experience (i.e. more CSS and JS calls). Once you look at other more relevant metrics like Visits and Pageviews, you will clearly see how bad Site A is doing compared to Site B. The numbers show more visits and pageviews, more time on site per visit, less bounced visits and more importantly higher conversion.
I am happy to see the Google Analytics site [second in the list] being visited by some government employees (Civil servants as they are called in the report), which gives me some hope that next year’s report will be based on more meaningful metrics rather than the useless number of Hits report.
Facebook encourages marketers to have a “business” page, also known as a “fan” page (which is different than a regular Facebook profile – create one here). While there are great marketing benefits in having this kind of presence on Facebook, there unfortunately are some limits versus having a normal profile or even a group page. We definitely recommend having a Facebook page and working it properly by creating consistent engaging content will significantly enhance your business, just so you know what you can and can’t do, here’s a list of some basic pros and cons:
Tabs – Facebook pages give you the ability to add and customize tabs, which are like extra pages or menu items. These tabs take basic html, so they are extremely flexible, just as almost any general page on the web. This is very useful if you want to provide information that doesn’t necessarily fit within the default Facebook functions/media. For example, you can have forms, links to your latest products/downloads, videos, banners, etc. These tabs also allow you to also create optimized landing tabs that you can design solely for conversion of a certain promotion. For example, “Click here for you’re your chance to win a free ipod!” Here’s an article on how to add custom tabs to your Facebook page.
Apps – There are some cool apps available only to Facebook pages, such as e-commerce apps that allow you to sell on Facebook, Youtube apps to display videos, “Bandpage” apps for musicians to display their music, etc. You can even hire developers to create completely custom applications for your company. Unfortunately, Facebook has closed the app directory, so you will need to search for any existing apps. One wayto find existing apps that might be great for your page is to go to pages similar to yours and see what apps they are using.
Search Engine Optimization – Facebook pages have great SEO, so even if you end up doing nothing with your page, it’s still a good idea just to have that presence. When creating a Facebook page, make sure to fill in all pertinent information – give it a good Title, About Us, basic info, local info and addresses, etc. Make everything as keyword-rich as possible because this is what will be read by Google and may index above even your website. Also, even when searching within Facebook, it’s a lot easier to find your needle in a smaller haystack of businesses than it is to find it in 750 million profiles.
Inbound Fans Only – While I list this as a con later, what you have here by default, is the members of your page are only quality leads. In outbound marketing, cold prospects may or may not be someone interested. Example, in Myspace, business pages had the luxury of sending friend requests. However, you’d find that members would just except them, either without thinking or just for the sake of increasing their friend count. This is opposed to now your members who had to consciously subscribe to you. Members like this will more likely have open ears to what you have to say.
Ads – Facebook’s ads system is such a robust system because of its precision targeting. Profiles not only filling out their interest, but choosing already existing pages allows Facebook to pool everyone together based on interest, resulting in highly targeted, quality segments. With a page, you now have access to the most targeted market there is for your business – members of your page! Who else would want to purchase your product more than those who consciously joined your page because they were interested in you?
Aside from this, you may one day need to reach another market through Facebook ads. For example, you may be a musician similar to Justin Bieber and you’d like to market your music to his millions of fans. You can now target that pool of prospects and combine it with other similar pools to create significantly large, targeted audience that is likely to be interested in your page or product.
Sponsored Story’s – Someone says something good about your page – here is the key to viral and social marketing, the power and trust of word-of-mouth. Now, having a page allows you to extend that reach further – you can pay for “sponsored stories”, similar to an ad, you can increase the reach of that word-of-mouth and give it more weight to those that may not have necessarily seen or paid attention to the glowing review.
Insight – A huge benefit for having a Facebook page is Facebook’s built in analytics system that measures engagement to your page. You’ll be able to track, for example, how many likes you get a day. What posts are the most engaging? Has your engagement dropped from last month? Did a campaign increase engagement? By how much? Facebook’s API allows access to their data and can be used for different types of analytics integration, including Google Analytics Social Engagement measurement. Though the system can be improved (there are limits on what you can segment. Also, the definition of metrics like “likes” are too ambiguous – do you mean I got 10 likes to posts today or 10 likes to my page?), this is great for a general idea of what activity is happening on your page.
Cons (Limits of Fan Pages)
Inbound Fans Only?! While this is great from a consumer’s perspective – limiting spam requests – for marketers, it’s …well … limiting. Your market has to come to you. Similar to the “Opt In” vs. “Opt Out” email subscription discussion, while “Opt In” will get you more qualified leads and less unsubscribes, it also means you have to be a lot more creative in enticing prospects to sign up. You have a similar challenge here – businesses now have to come up with engaging content and promotions to make it of value for users to “Like” their page. While this has its benefits, it doesn’t make life any easier for increasing your membership.
Wall Updates don’t reach all your fans. With Facebook’s new EdgeRank algorithm, only posts relevant to users will appear in their feed (based on how often they interact with you page, how much engagement your posts get, etc.). It becomes the chicken-and-egg – no one will see your post if it’s not attention worthy, but then how can it get attention if no one sees it?! If your page is new or took a break for a little while, and people stopped visiting, your 1000+ fans you worked so hard to acquire may not even see any of your wall updates.
“Updates” page don’t trigger a “red” notification. There is a way to send notification-type messages called “updates” via your page. However, these do not trigger an update like regular Facebook inbox messages do. The fall into an “others” bucket, and may not be read right away, or if you’re like me, I don’t even read the “others” bucket at all. While this was meant to reduce spam interaction by putting all the “business” type messages in one bucket, I would even argue that this is more detrimental to consumers. They willingly wanted to get updates from these pages, and because of this, they may miss things they were interested in.
Unable to invite members to an event. While you can create an event under your page, you are unable to send invites to members of the page (though you can send invites to friends of your profile to that event). That means it will not show up in your members’ profiles under events (unless they willingly make the effort to find your event and attend). Thus, if your guests aren’t engaged with your page, very few may notice the event.
Unable to message event guests. If you do manage to get guests to your event, if the event was created under your page, the “Message Guests” feature will not be an available function. Instead, “Update Fans of Your page” is available, which means you can send a non-notification updates about your event, but to all your page members, not event guests.
While having consistently engaging content on your page is the standard way to engage your members and will eventually increase your membership, sometimes, you need a boost! The limits on Facebook page functions sometimes hinder this. In our next post, we’ll go through some “guerilla” viral tactics that use functions (events and messaging) that are available to your profile, your friends’ profiles, and your page, to maximize notification and engagement.
One of the unique features of Google+ is the ability to edit comments and posts. In Facebook, if you misspell a word in your comment or status update, the only way to fix it is to delete the entire post and rewrite it.
With the “edit” feature in Google+, it does not matter how many errors you make, because you always have the ability to go back and correct them.
There exists the ability to edit/change thoughts on a conversation after comments have already been posted. This could possibly lead to misleading situations.
Take the following scenario: I start a discussion on a certain topic and after people have engaged in the conversation I change the existing subject all together and without notifying the participants.
Here is a Google+ update I posted today to my work circle:
After I got few answers to my question, I changed the question to how I like to see it
In reality this change of context does not happen in human interactions without the awareness of all participants…unless you were interviewed by an unfair news station and when later watching your interview you realize that it was butchered and only passages were aired taking everything out of context.
Request to the Google+ team:
To be fair and accurate to all participants and readers, comments should always be attached to the original topic they’ve posted under/replied to; whether they were a reply to an original post or to someone’s comment. Once a preceding piece was edited all those who commented should be notified of the change and have the ability to approve, delete or change their reply based on the alteration to the original topic.